73)       P. A. Finn, I. E. Jacobs, J. Armitage, R. Wu, B. D. Paulsen, M. Freeley, M. Palma, J. Rivnay, H Sirringhaus, C. B. Nielsen Effect of polar side chains on neutral and p-doped polythiophene J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 16216–16223

72) Z. S. Parr, C. B. Nielsen Conjugated Molecules for Colourimetric and Fluorimetric Sensing of Sodium and Potassium Mater. Chem. Front., 2020, 4, 2370–2377

71)  Z. S. Parr, R. B. Rashid, B. D. Paulsen, B. Poggi, E. Tan, M. Freeley, M. Palma, I. Abrahams, J. Rivnay, C. B. Nielsen Semiconducting Small Molecules as Active Materials for p-Type Accumulation Mode Organic Electrochemical Transistors Adv. Electron. Mater., 2020, 6, 2000215

70)  H. Bronstein, C. B. Nielsen, B. C. Schroeder, I. McCulloch The role of chemical design in the performance of organic semiconductors Nat. Rev. Chem., 2020, 4, 66–77


69)   A. A. Y. Guilbert, M. Zbiri, P. A. Finn, M. Jenart, P. Fouquet, V. Cristiglio, B. Frick, J. Nelson, C. B. Nielsen Mapping Micro-Structural Dynamics up to the Nanosecond of the Conjugated Polymer P3HT in the Solid State Chem. Mater., 2019, 31, 9635–9651 (ACS Editors’ Choice; front cover)

68)   Z. S. Parr, R. Halaksa, P. A. Finn, R. B. Rashid, A. Kovalenko, M. Weiter, J. Rivnay, J. Krajčovič, C. B. Nielsen Glycolated Thiophene-Tetrafluorophenylene Copolymers for Bioelectronic Applications: Synthesis by Direct Heteroarylation Polymerisation ChemPlusChem, 2019, 84, 1384–1390

67)    K. Kang, S. Schott, D. Venkateshvaran, K. Broch, G. Schweicher, D. Harkin, C. Jellett, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch, H. Sirringhaus Investigation of the Thermoelectric Response in Conducting Polymers Doped by Solid-State Diffusion, Mater. Today Phys., 2019, 8, 112–122

66)    J. Borges-González, C. J. Kousseff, C. B. Nielsen Organic semiconductors for biological sensing, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2019, 7, 1111–1130 (invited review)


65)    M. Nikolka, G. Schweicher, J. Armitage, C. Jellett, Z. Guo, M. Hurhangee, A. Sadhanala, I. McCulloch, C. B. Nielsen, H. Sirringhaus Performance Improvements in Conjugated Polymer Devices by Removal of Water Induced Traps, Adv. Mater., 2018, 30, 1801874

64)    A. Giovannitti, K. J. Thorley, C. B. Nielsen, J. Li, M. J. Donahue, G. G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch Redox-Stability of Alkoxy-BDT Copolymers and their Use for Organic Bioelectronic Devices, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2018, 28, 1706325


63)    M. Neophytou, J. Griffiths, J. Fraser, M. Kirkus, H. Chen, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch High mobility, hole transport materials for highly efficient PEDOT:PSS replacement in inverted perovskite solar cells, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 4940–4945

62)    S. Schott, E. McNellis, C. B. Nielsen, H.-Y. Chen, S. Watanabe, H. Tanaka, I. McCulloch, K. Takimiya, J. Sinova, H. Sirringhaus Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors, Nat. Commun., 2017, 8, 15200

61)   C. B. Nielsen, S. Hammerum Secondary kinetic deuterium isotope effects. The CC cleavage of labeled tetramethyl ethylenediamine radical cations—who gets to keep the electron?, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2017, 413, 92–96

60)   W. Qiu, J. Bastos, S. Dasgupta, T. Merckx, I. Cardinaletti, M. V. C. Jenart, C. B. Nielsen, R. Gehlhaar, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, I. McCulloch, D. Cheyns High efficiency Perovskite solar cells with crosslinked PCBM interlayers, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 2466–2472

59)   C. D. Spicer, D. Mawad, M. A. Booth, A. Armgarth, C. B. Nielsen, M. M. Stevens Synthesis of Hetero-Bifunctional, End-Capped Oligo-EDOT Derivatives, Chem, 2017, 2, 125–138


58)   W. Yue, M. Nikolka, M. Xu, C. B. Nielsen, A. J. P. White, H.-Y. Chen, O., Nkechinyerem, H. Sirringhaus, I. McCulloch Azaisoindigo conjugated polymers for high performance n-type and ambipolar thin film transistor applications, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 9704–9710

57)   A. Giovannitti, D. T. Sbircea, S. Inal, C. B. Nielsen, E. Bandiello, D. A. Hanifi, M. Sessolo, G. G. Malliaras, I. McCulloch, J. Rivnay Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side-chain engineering, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016, 113, 12017–12022

56)   L. A. Rochford, T. S. Jones, C. B. Nielsen Epitaxial Templating of C60 with a Molecular Monolayer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2016, 7, 3487–3490

55)   A. Giovannitti, C. B. Nielsen, D. T. Sbircea, S. Inal, M. Donahue, M. R. Niazi, D. A. Hanifi, A. Amassian, G. G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch N-type organic electrochemical transistors with stability in water, Nat. Commun., 2016, 7, 13066

54)   C. B. Nielsen,* A. Giovannitti, D. T. Sbircea, E. Bandiello, M. R. Niazi, D. A. Hanifi, M. Sessolo, A. Amassian, G. G. Malliaras, J. Rivnay, I. McCulloch Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 10252–10259

53)   A.-C. Knall, R. S. Ashraf, M. Nikolka, C. B. Nielsen, B. Purushotaman, A. Sadhanala, M. Hurhangee, K. Broch, D. J. Harkin, J. Novak, M. Neophytou, P. Hayoz, H. Sirringhaus, I. McCulloch Naphthacenodithophene Based Polymers – New Members of the Acenodithiophene Family Exhibiting High Mobility and Power Conversion Efficiency, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2016, 26, 6961–6969 (highlighted as a VIP article)

52)   L. A. Rochford, A. J. Ramadan, S. Holliday, T. S. Jones, C. B. Nielsen The effect of fluorination on the surface structure of truxenones, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 67315–67318

51)   A. A. Y. Guilbert, M. Zbiri, M. V. C. Jenart, C. B. Nielsen, J. Nelson New Insights into the Molecular Dynamics of Poly-3-Hexylthiophene:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction: A Time-of-Flight Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2016, 7, 2252–2257

50)   S. Holliday, R. S. Ashraf, A. Wadsworth, D. Baran, S. A. Yousaf, C. B. Nielsen, C.-H. Tan, S. D. Dimitrov, Z. Shang, N. Gasparini, M. Alamoudi, F. Laquai, C. J. Brabec, A. Salleo, J. R. Durrant, I. McCulloch High-efficiency and air-stable P3HT-based polymer solar cells with a new non-fullerene acceptor, Nat. Commun., 2016, 7, 11585 (highlighted in Nat. Energy)

49)   A. J. Ramadan, C. B. Nielsen, S. Holliday, T. S. Jones, I. McCulloch, L. A. Rochford Organic/inorganic epitaxy: commensurate epitaxial growth of truxenone on Cu (111), RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 17125–17128

48)   S. D. Dimitrov, B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, Z. Fei, H. Bronstein, I. McCulloch, M. Heeney, J. R. Durrant Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells, Polymers, 2016, 8, 14 (invited feature article)


47)   A. Giovannitti, C. B. Nielsen, J. Rivnay, M. Kirkus, D. J. Harkin, A. J. P. White, H. Sirringhaus, G. G. Malliaras, I. McCulloch Sodium and Potassium Ion Selective Conjugated Polymers for Optical Ion Detection in Solution and Solid State, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2015, 26, 514–523 (highlighted as a VIP article)

46)   C. B. Nielsen,* S. Holliday, H.-Y. Chen, S. Cryer, I. McCulloch Non-Fullerene Electron Acceptors for Use in Organic Solar Cells, Acc. Chem. Res., 2015, 48, 2803–2812

45)   W. Qiu, U. W. Paetzold, R. Gehlhaar, V. Smirnov, H.-G. Boyen, J. G. Tait, W. Zhang, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch, L. Froyen, P. Heremans, D. Cheyns An electron beam evaporated TiO2 layer for high efficiency planar perovskite solar cells on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 22824–22829

44)   B. C. Schroeder, M. Kirkus, C. B. Nielsen, R. S. Ashraf, I. McCulloch Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics, Macromolecules, 2015, 48, 5557–5562

43)   W. Yue, R. S. Ashraf, C. B. Nielsen, E. Collado-Fregoso, M. R. Niazi, S. A. Yousaf, M. Kirkus, H.-Y. Chen, A. Amassian, J. R. Durrant, I. McCulloch A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells, Adv. Mater., 2015, 27, 4702–4707 (highlighted as a VIP article)

42)   B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, P. Westacott, J. Smith, S. Rossbauer, T. D. Anthopoulos, N. Stingelin, I. McCulloch Effects of alkyl chain positioning on conjugated polymer microstructure and field-effect mobilities, MRS Commun., 2015, 5, 435–440

41)   C. B. Nielsen,* A. J. P. White, I. McCulloch Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole, J. Org. Chem., 2015, 80, 5045–5048

40)   J. W. Rumer, R. S. Ashraf, B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells, Adv. Energy Mater., 2015, 5, 1401426 (highlighted as a VIP article)

39)   R. S. Ashraf, I. Meager, M. Nikolka, M. Kirkus, M. Planells, B. C. Schroeder, S. Holliday, M. Hurhangee, C. B. Nielsen, H. Sirringhaus, I. McCulloch Chalcogenophene Comonomer Comparison in Small Band Gap Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Conjugated Polymers for High-Performing Field-Effect Transistors and Organic Solar Cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 1314–1321

38)   S. Holliday, R. S. Ashraf, C. B. Nielsen, J. A. Röhr, M. Kirkus, A. C. Knall, C.-H. Tan, J. R. Durrant, J. Nelson, I. McCulloch A Rhodanine Flanked Non-Fullerene Acceptor for Solution-Processed Organic Photovoltaics, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 898–904

37)   C. B. Nielsen,* R. S. Ashraf, N. D. Treat, B. C. Schroeder, J. E. Donaghey, A. J. P. White, N. Stingelin, I. McCulloch 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole-5,6-Dicarboxylic Imide – A Versatile Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free Processing of Organic Solar Cells with Efficiencies Exceeding 8%, Adv. Mater., 2015, 27, 948–953 (highlighted as a VIP article)


36)   I. Meager, R. S. Ashraf, C. B. Nielsen, J. E. Donaghey, H. Bronstein, I. McCulloch Power conversion efficiency enhancement in diketopyrrolopyrrole based solar cells through polymer fractionation, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, 2, 8593–8598

35)   I. Meager, M. Nikolka, B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, M. Planells, H. Bronstein, J. W. Rumer, D. I. James, R. S. Ashraf, A. Sadhanala, P. Hayoz, J.-C. Flores H. Sirringhaus, I. McCulloch Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Flanked Isoindigo Polymers for High Performance Ambipolar OFET Applications, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2014, 24, 7109–7115

34)   C. B. Nielsen,* E. Voroshazi, S. Holliday, K. Cnops, D. Cheyns, I. McCulloch Electron-deficient truxenone derivatives and their use in organic photovoltaics, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014, 2, 12348–12354

33)   B. C. Schroeder, S. Rossbauer, R. J. Kline, L. Biniek, S. E. Watkins, T. D. Anthopoulos, I. McCulloch, C. B. Nielsen Benzotrithiophene Copolymers: The Influence of Molecular Packing and Energy Levels on Charge Carrier Mobility, Macromolecules, 2014, 47, 2883–2890

32)   J. W. Rumer, B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, R. S. Ashraf, D. Beatrup, H. Bronstein, S. J. Cryer, J. E. Donaghey, S. Holliday, M. Hurhangee, D. I. James, S. Lim, I. Meager, W. Zhang, I. McCulloch Bis-lactam-based donor polymers for organic solar cells: Evolution by design Thin Solid Films, 2014, 560, 82–85

31)   S. D. Dimitrov, Z. Huang, F. Deledalle, C. B. Nielsen, B. C. Schroeder, S. Ashraf, S. Shoaee, I. McCulloch, J. R. Durrant Towards optimisation of photocurrent from fullerene excitons in organic solar cells Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 1037–1043 (“Hot Article” on the EES Blog)


30)   C. B. Nielsen,* R. S. Ashraf, S. Rossbauer, T. Anthopoulos, I. McCulloch Post-Polymerization Ketalization for Improved Organic Photovoltaic Materials Macromolecules, 2013, 46, 7727–7732

29)   J. W. Rumer, C. K. L. Hor, I. Meager, C. P. Yau, Z. Huang, C. B. Nielsen, S. E. Watkins, H. Bronstein, I. McCulloch Alkyl side-chain branching point effects in thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione copolymers J. Org. Semiconductors, 2013, 1, 30–35

28)   C. B. Nielsen,* I. McCulloch Recent Advances in Transistor Performance of Polythiophenes Prog. Polym. Sci., 2013, 38, 2053–2069

27)   N. Bansal, L. X. Reynolds, A. MacLachlan, T. Lutz, S. Ashraf, W. Zhang, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch, D. G. Rebois, T. Kirchartz, J. Nelson, M. S. Hill, K. Molloy, S. A. Haque The Influence of Crystallinity and Energetics on Charge Separation in Polymer–Inorganic Semiconductor Nanocomposite Films Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, 1531

26)   C. B. Nielsen,* M. Turbiez, I. McCulloch Recent Advances in the Development of Semiconducting DPP-Containing Polymers Adv. Mater., 2013, 25, 1859–1880

25)   C. B. Nielsen,* E. Sohn, D. Cho, B. C. Schroeder, J. Smith, M. Lee, T. D. Anthopoulos, K. Song, I. McCulloch Improved Field-Effect Transistor Performance of a Benzotrithiophene Polymer through Ketal Cleavage in the Solid State ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2013, 5, 1806–1810

24)   H. Zhong, Z. Li, F. Deledalle, E. C. Fregoso, M. Shahid, Z. Fei, C. B. Nielsen, N. Yaacobi‐Gross, S. Rossbauer, T. D. Anthopoulos, J. R. Durrant, M. Heeney Fused Dithienogermolodithiophene Low Band Gap Polymers for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells without Processing Additives J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 2040–2043

23)   L. Biniek, B. C. Schroeder, J. E. Donaghey, N. Yaacobi-Gross, R. S. Ashraf, Y. W. Soon, C. B. Nielsen, J. R. Durrant, T. D. Anthopoulos, I. McCulloch New Fused Bis-Thienobenzothienothiophene Copolymers and Their Use in Organic Solar Cells and Transistors Macromolecules, 2013, 46, 727–735

22)   H. Bronstein, J. M. Frost, A. Hadipour, Y. Kim, C. B. Nielsen, R. S. Ashraf, B. Rand, S. Watkins, I. McCulloch Effect of Fluorination on the Properties of a Donor-Acceptor Copolymer for Use in Photovoltaic Cells and Transistors Chem. Mater., 2013, 25, 277–285

21)   A. A. Bakulin, S. D. Dimitrov, A. Rao, P. C. Y. Chow, C. B. Nielsen, B. C. Schroeder, I. McCulloch, H. J. Bakker, J. R. Durrant, R. H. Friend Charge-Transfer State Dynamics Following Hole and Electron Transfer in Organic Photovoltaic Devices J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 209–215

20)   C. B. Nielsen,* E. Voroshazi, S. Holliday, K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, I. McCulloch Efficient truxenone-based acceptors for organic photovoltaics J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 73–76


19)   S. D. Dimitrov, A. A. Bakulin, C. B. Nielsen, B. C. Schroeder, J. Du, H. Bronstein, I. McCulloch, R. H. Friend, J. R. Durrant On the Energetic Dependence of Charge Separation in Polymer/Fullerene Blends J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 18189−18192

18)   B. C. Schroeder, R. S. Ashraf, S. Thomas, A. J. P. White, L. Biniek, C. B. Nielsen, W. Zhang, Z. Huang, P. S. Tuladhar, S. E. Watkins, T. D. Anthopoulos, J. R. Durrant, I. McCulloch Synthesis of novel thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) based low bandgap polymers for organic photovoltaics Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 7699–7701

17)   L. Biniek, B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen, I. McCulloch Recent advances in high mobility donor–acceptor semiconducting polymers J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 14803–14813 (“Hot Article” on the JMC Blog)

16)   C. B. Nielsen,* R. S. Ashraf, B. C. Schroeder, P. D’Angelo, S. E. Watkins, K. Song, T. D. Anthopoulos, I. McCulloch Random benzotrithiophene-based donor-acceptor copolymers for efficient organic photovoltaic devices Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 5832–5834

15)   I. McCulloch, R. S. Ashraf, L. Biniek, H. Bronstein, C. Combe, J. E. Donaghey, D. I. James, C. B. Nielsen, B. C. Schroeder, W. Zhang Design of Semiconducting Indacenodithiophene Polymers for High Performance Transistors and Solar Cells Acc. Chem. Res., 2012, 45, 714–722

14)   J. Kirkpatrick, C. B. Nielsen,* W. Zhang, H. Bronstein, R. S. Ashraf, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch A Systematic Approach to the Design Optimization of Light Absorbing Indenofluorene Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Adv. Energy Mater., 2012, 2, 260–265

13)   S. D. Dimitrov, C. B. Nielsen, S. Shoaee, P. S. Tuladhar, J. Du, I. McCulloch, J. R. Durrant Efficient Charge Photogeneration by the Dissociation of PC70BM Excitons in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 140–144


12)   J. E. Donaghey, R. S. Ashraf, Y. Kim, Z. G. Huang, C. B. Nielsen, W. Zhang, B. Schroeder, C. R. G. Grenier, C. T. Brown, P. D’Angelo, J. Smith, S. Watkins, K. Song, T. D. Anthopoulos, J. R. Durrant, C. K. Williams, I. McCulloch Pyrroloindacenodithiophene containing polymers for organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 18744–18752

11)   C. B. Nielsen,* B. C. Schroeder, A. Hadipour, B. P. Rand, S. E. Watkins, I. McCulloch A benzotrithiophene-based low band gap polymer for polymer solar cells with high open-circuit voltage J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 17642–17645

10)   B. C. Schroeder, C. B. Nielsen,* Y. Kim, J. Smith, S. E. Watkins, K. Song, T. D. Anthopoulos, I. McCulloch Benzotrithiophene Copolymers with High Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors Chem. Mater., 2011, 23, 4025–4031

9)      C. B. Nielsen,* J. M. Fraser, B. C. Schroeder, J. Du, A. J. P. White, W. Zhang, I. McCulloch Benzotrithiophene – A Planar, Electron-Rich Building Block for Organic Semiconductors Org. Lett., 2011, 13, 2414–2417

8)      A. Mavrinskiy, C. B. Nielsen, J. R. Reynolds, K. Müllen, W. Pisula Influence of the Alkyl Mantle on the Self-Assembly of Phenylene-Thienylene-Based Oligomers Chem. Mater., 2011, 23, 1939–1945


7)      S. M. Tuladhar, M. Sims, S. A. Choulis, C. B. Nielsen, W. N. George, J. H. G. Steinke, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Nelson Influence of side chain symmetry on the performance of poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene): Fullerene blend solar cells Org. Electron., 2009, 10, 562–567

6)      S. M. Tuladhar, M. Sims, J. Kirkpatrick, R. C. Maher, A. J. Chatten, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Nelson, P. G. Etchegoin, C. B. Nielsen, P. Massiot, W. N. George, J. H. G. Steinke Influence of alkyl chain length on charge transport in symmetrically substituted poly(2,5-dialkoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) polymers Phys. Rev. B, 2009, 79, 035201

5)      C. B. Nielsen, A. Angerhofer, K. A. Abboud, J. R. Reynolds Discrete Photopatternable p-Conjugated Oligomers for Electrochromic Devices J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 9734–9746

4)      M. Sims, S. M. Tuladhar, J. Nelson, R. C. Maher, M. Campoy Quiles, S. A. Choulis, M. Mairy, D. D. C. Bradley, P. G. Etchegoin, C. Tregidgo, K. Suhling, D. R. Richards, P. Massiot, C. B. Nielsen, J. H. G. Steinke Correlation between microstructure and charge transport in poly(2,5-dimethoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) thin films Phys. Rev. B, 2007, 76, 195206

3)      C. B. Nielsen, T. Bjørnholm Structure-Property Relations of Regiosymmetrical 3,4-Dioxy-Functionalized Polythiophenes Macromolecules, 2005, 38, 10379–10387

2)      C. B. Nielsen, T. Bjørnholm New Regiosymmetrical Dioxopyrrolo- and Dihydropyrrolo-Functionalized Polythiophenes Org. Lett., 2004, 6, 3381–3384

1)      B. W. Laursen, K. Nørgaard, N. Reitzel, J. B. Simonsen, C. B. Nielsen, J. Als-Nielsen, T. Bjørnholm, T. I. Sølling, M. M. Nielsen, O. Bunk, K. Kjaer, N. Tchebotareva, M. D. Watson, K. Müllen, J. Piris Macroscopic Alignment of Graphene Stacks by Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition of Amphiphilic Hexabenzocoronenes Langmuir, 2004, 20, 4139–4146